Plants, like animals, have eukaryotic cells – meaning they possess a defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Although they share many common features they have 2 main differences.
Firstly, plant cells have a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane, whereas animal cells do not. This allows them to form
an upright structure without the need for a skeleton. Second, they have two organelles that animal cells lack – chloroplasts
and a large central vacuole. These allow them to produce their own food through photosynthesis.
So whats inside these cells you ask ? Check out the diagram below and the videos in the subsections. Please click on the
closed captions button to read transcriptions if video is not narrated)

The National Geographic Plant Cell Diagram

Cytoplasm – the liquid that everything floats in which allow things to move around as needed. Check out this process
called cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming) – where chloroplasts move around inside the cell to obtain the best possible light
from the sun !

WATCH THE VIDEO :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFsty-XyLZc

Chloroplasts
loaded with the photosynthetic
pigment we call chlorophyll.
WATCH THE VIDEO : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwymX2LxnQs

Nucleus – the library – storage of DNA
WATCH THE VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_-6JXLYS-k

Endoplasmic reticulum – the manufacturing center for proteins (with the help from
ribosomes) and lipids

Golgi apparatus – hideous name but what it does is store the synthesized proteins and fats in the
cell then delivers them where needed like of like a food delivery service.

Ribosomes – the tiny organelle that synthesized proteins by reading the DNA (or actually a simpler
copy called RNA)
WATCH THE VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=morl5e-jBNk

Mitochondria – the energy maker! Converts raw materials into usable energy.
WATCH THE VIDEO : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=39HTpUG1MwQ

Vacuole – a big storage tank of food and water that also regulates internal pressure – it helps
keep plants upright !

Lysosomes !!! MY FAVORITE OF THEM ALL !

These hold digestive enzymes that usually perform the function of cellular waste disposal. They
digest worn-out organelles, food particles and foreign bodies in the cell – kind of like an amoeba
! BUT if the cell is attacked by a something (disease) they rupture and LIQUIFY everything – the
good, the bad and the ugly all at once !

WATCH THE VIDEO :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKVDLbUjxSQ
Eye Candy for plant people

Love Time Lapse – isn’t nature wonderful

Article by the Talented Peter Morris our resident Horticulturalist ( and expert Jam maker ) – Thank you to National Geographic – which, if you don’t have a subscription to it – you really should !